Folgen unsicherer Bindung im Erwachsenenalter

We all carry traces of our past with us - especially when it comes to relationships. You may have noticed that your past relationships often didn't last long. You may feel like you can't maintain a strong bond no matter how hard you try. Or maybe you've experienced a recurring insecurity that hangs like a shadow over your interpersonal connections.

In the complex world of human relationships, there are a multitude of factors that influence how we connect, communicate and harmonize. One of these factors is the type of attachment we develop with our caregivers in early childhood. People who have experienced insecure attachment can often face difficulties in relationships, which manifest themselves through constant problems and partnership failures. In this blog article, we take a closer look at the reasons and challenges people with insecure attachments can face and explore ways they can build healthy relationships.

What is an insecure attachment?

Attachment research as an independent discipline of psychology is relatively young - it developed in the 20th century with attachment theory according to  John Bowlby  and  Mary Ainsworth  . 

Our attachment patterns are shaped in the early years of life as we interact with our primary caregivers. These patterns influence how we behave later in relationships. There are three main types of attachment: secure, insecure-avoidant, and insecure-ambivalent. People with insecure attachments often have trouble building trust, allowing closeness, and appropriately expressing their own needs and feelings. 

It's important to note that attachment styles are not set in stone and can change over time, particularly as the child moves into a safer and more supportive environment or as parents adjust their parenting practices. However, very early attachment experiences can have long-term effects on emotional development, relationships, and mental health.

Different types of bonds can form between children and their caregivers during childhood:

  1. Secure Attachment : Children with a secure attachment feel comfortable and safe around their caregivers. They explore their surroundings, but regularly return to their parents to calm down or seek closeness. They trust that their needs will be met.

  2. Insecure Avoidant Attachment : Children with this attachment often avoid or ignore their parents and show little response to breakups or reunions. They may have learned to suppress their own needs in order not to be disappointed, or they may have learned that intimacy and emotional dependency are unreliable.

  3. Insecure Ambiguous Attachment : Children with this attachment are often insecure and anxious even when their parents are around. They constantly seek closeness, but are difficult to soothe and have difficulty breaking away from their caregiver to explore their surroundings. These children may have experienced that closeness is unpredictable and that they are often rejected.

  4. Disorganized attachment : This attachment style is characterized by contradictory behaviors, such as seeking closeness while fleeing from the caregiver. Children with disorganized attachments may have grown up in environments that were unsafe or even dangerous and have difficulty developing coherent behavioral patterns. 

Insecure attachment can be caused by several factors:

  1. Lack of Responsiveness of the Caregiver : When a caregiver repeatedly fails to respond appropriately to the child's needs, it can lead to insecurity. The child learns that their needs are not reliably met.

  2. Unpredictability and inconsistency : When caregivers react in an unpredictable way—sometime loving, sometimes hostile—the child may have trouble establishing trust.

  3. Negative environment : A stressful or traumatic environment can lead to an insecure attachment because the child does not receive the necessary emotional support.

  4. The caregiver's own history of attachment or trauma : If the caregiver has insecure attachment patterns from their own childhood or has had traumatic experiences, this can affect their attachment to their own child.

  5. Genetics and Temperament : Some children might be more prone to developing insecure attachments because of their genetic makeup or temperament.

Relationship Challenges:

The effects of insecure attachments on our love lives can be profound and often go unnoticed. When it comes to finding a partner, an insecure attachment can affect our choices, perceptions, and behaviors, often in subtle ways. In fact, it can even lead us to avoid potentially great partnerships or jeopardize existing relationships.

Withdrawal from intimacy: People who have experienced insecure attachment may develop a tendency to withdraw from emotional intimacy. This can lead them to be distant in new relationships or not to be open about their true feelings. Fear of vulnerability and disappointment can cause them to withdraw into their protective armor, which in turn can turn off potential partners. The chance to build a deep emotional bond is thus impaired.

Self-doubt and distrust: Insecure attachments can also lead to self-doubt and a deep distrust of a partner's intentions. People with such attachment patterns may constantly doubt whether they are truly loved or whether their partner will run away at the first opportunity. This self-doubt can lead them to subconsciously look for evidence of rejection or see a perceived threat to the relationship in every partner's behavior.

The search for validation: People with insecure attachments may subconsciously seek constant validation and attention from their partner. This can make them seem overly needy and could feel stifled in the relationship if their needs aren't met right away. These behaviors could overwhelm the partner and lead to frustration, which in turn strains the relationship.

Avoidance or intensification of conflicts: Insecure attachments could also lead to conflicts and disagreements being avoided in order not to jeopardize the attachment. This can lead to problems being swept under the rug instead of being openly addressed and resolved. However, in the long run, unspoken problems can lead to alienation and dissatisfaction in the relationship. Insecure attachments can also lead partners to suspect negative intentions or motives in each other's actions. Minor disagreements may be seen as a sign that the partner is disinterested or unfaithful. These negative interpretations often lead to a vicious circle of misunderstandings and accusations that exacerbate the conflict.

Ways to overcome:

  1. Self-Reflection: People with insecure attachment might benefit from deep self-reflection to understand the sources of their fears and insecurities. Coming to terms with their own past can help identify and address the roots of these patterns.

  2. Therapeutic support: Professional therapy, such as B. attachment therapy or cognitive behavioral therapy, can help to identify the negative thought and behavior patterns and develop strategies to overcome them.

  3. Communication Training: Learning healthy communication skills can help minimize conflict and express needs more clearly. Couples therapy can be very useful in this regard.

  4. Patience and self-work: Overcoming insecure attachment takes time and continuous effort. Focusing on personal growth and self-love can help develop healthier relationship patterns.

Overall, it's important to emphasize that people with insecure attachments aren't doomed to struggle in relationships all the time. With awareness, self-reflection, and support, they can overcome the patterns that weigh on their relationships and ultimately build fulfilling and lasting connections.

It's never too late to embark on the path of personal and interpersonal development.

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Written by Mara Schär

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